Probability (Total 42443 Papers Found)

BACKGROUND The continual reassessment method (CRM) is an adaptive model-based design used to estimate the maximum tolerated dose in dose finding clinical trials. A way to evaluate the sensitivity of a given CRM model including the functional form of the dose-toxicity curve, the prior distribution on the model parameter, and the initial guesses of toxicity probability at each dose is using indifference intervals. While the indifference interval technique provides a succinct summary of model sensi ...
In this work we investigate an inverse geometry problem. Given a light source, a diffuse plane and a caustic image, how must a geometric object look like (transmissive or reflective) in oder to project the desired caustic onto the diffuse plane when lit by the light source? In order to construct the geometry we apply an analysis-by-synthesis approach, exploiting the GPU to accelerate caustic rendering based on the current geometry estimate. The optimization is driven by simultaneous perturbation ...
Fig. 1. Percentage of lakes with a clear water phase versus the NAO winter index. The crosshatched area represents clear water phases for which there is a likely explanation other than temperature. The open area represents clear water phases in normal, untreated Dutch lakes. As is obvious from the graph, the correlation between the NAO winter index and the percentage clear disappears if we exclude those lakes for which there are other likely explanations. In a recent paper in Limnology and Ocean ...
Invasive species surveillance has typically been targeted to where the species is most likely to occur. However, spatially varying environmental characteristics and land uses may affect more than just the probability of occurrence. Biodiversity or economic value, and the ease of detection and control are also likely to vary. We incorporate these factors into a detection and treatment model of a low-density invader to determine the surveillance strategy that minimizes expected management costs. S ...
BACKGROUND Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co(3)O(4)NPs) are increasingly recognized for their utility in biological applications, magnetic resonance imaging, and drug delivery. However, little is known about the toxicity of Co(3)O(4)NPs in human cells. METHODS We investigated the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by Co(3)O(4)NPs in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, apoptosis, and DNA d ...
In a previous paper (hep-th/0304045) it has been argued that tachyonic Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) actions can be obtained from open string theory in a limit, which generalizes the usual massless DBI limit. In the present note we review this construction focusing on a key property of the proposed tachyon effective actions: how they reproduce appropriate Veneziano amplitudes in a suitably defined kinematical region. Possible extensions and interesting open problems are briefly discussed. ...
Because of the high intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, receptor-mediated opening of Cl- channels at the cell resting potential could represent a plausible mechanism for initial receptor-mediated cell depolarization. To test this hypothesis, we characterized activation of large-conductance Cl- channels by the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor agonist [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-substance P, by specific second messengers, and by direct G protein activation in myocytes isol ...
OBJECTIVE Previous research links high rates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with men who go to bathhouses; however, the literature provides no prevalence estimates. An exit survey of a probability sample was conducted to describe the prevalence of risk activity at the bathhouse. METHODS Data are from a 2-stage probability sample of men exiting a gay bathhouse (n = 400). RESULTS During their visit, 91.5% of men had oral sex and 44.2% had anal sex (11.1% reported UAI and 5.5% reported u ...
In species where females store sperm from their mates prior to fertilization, sperm competition is particularly probable. Female Sepia apama are polyandrous and have access to sperm from packages (spermatangia) deposited by males onto their buccal area during mating and to sperm stored in internal sperm-storage organs (receptacles) located below the beak. Here, we describe the structure of the sperm stores in the female's buccal area, use microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the genetic dive ...
0167-4870/$ see front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V doi:10.1016/j.joep.2008.09.001 * Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 3020935904. E-mail address: cds@wiwi.hu-berlin.de (C. Schad We experimentally analyze consumers’ reactions to insurance default risk. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that insurance with default risk is extremely unattractive to most individuals. A considerable fraction of consumers completely refuse to accept any default risk; others ask for large reductions in insurance pre ...
Subjects with fasting and/or postprandial plasma glucose levels that are higher than those in normal subjects but less than those in patients with manifest NIDDM are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This association between glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease was first hypothesized in the 1950s but was not substantiated until the results of several long-term prospective studies became available. The results suggest that there is not a continuously variable associatio ...
The effect of fungal infection on the reproductive potential of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, was evaluated as part of the full biocontrol potential of three entomopathogenic fungi by modeling of fecundity probability. Female mites (≤2-day-old) on leaves were exposed to the sprays of Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium anisopliae at the concentrations of 1.13 × 103, 1.55 × 103 and 0.95 × 103 deposited conidia mm−2 and then individually reare ...
th For any sentence φ of any logic and any n > 0, one may define the n probability of φ to be the fraction of structure for the vocabulary of φ with universe {0,1,...,n-1} th which satisfy φ. The the limit probability of φ is the limit of the n probability of φ as n goes to infinity, which may or may not exist. Fagin [1] and independently Glebskii, Kogan, Liogon'kii, and Talanov [2] proved that the limit probability of a first-order sentence is always 0 or 1. In the paper [3] it was sho ...
Bending of worm-like polymers carries an energy penalty which results in the appearance of a persistence length lp such that the polymer is straight on length scales smaller than lp and bends only on length scales larger than this length. Intuitively, this leads us to expect that the most probable value of the local curvature of a worm-like polymer undergoing thermal fluctuations in a solvent, is zero. We use simple geometric arguments and Monte Carlo simulations to show that while this expectat ...
This report summarizes methods to incorporate information (or lack of information) about inter-variable dependence into risk assessments that use Dempster-Shafer theory or probability bounds analysis to address epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. The report reviews techniques for simulating correlated variates for a given correlation measure and dependence model, computation of bounds on distribution functions under a specified dependence model, formulation of parametric and empirical dependence ...
The standard model of the electroweak interactions (SM) [1] is based on the gauge group SU(2) × U(1), with gauge bosons W i µ , i = 1, 2, 3, and B µ for the SU(2) and U(1) factors, respectively, and the corresponding gauge coupling constants g and g ′. The left-handed fermion fields of the i th fermion family transform as doublets Ψ i = ν i ℓ − i and u i d ′ i under SU(2), where d ′ i ≡ j V ij d j , and V is the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix. [Constraints on V and test ...
Rotordynamic instability is present in most or all automotive turbochargers. High subsynchronous amplitudes can cause a variety of problems in areas such as mechanical failures, emissions regulations and rotor design. Self-excited vibrations from sources of damping can lock in at lateral natural frequencies causing dangerously high vibration levels. The resulting highamplitude conical and bending modes can be reduced in order to achieve a more robust system. This research focuses on the relation ...
Timing yield, in conjunction with other types of yield, directly affects profit; under-estimation is as bad as over-estimation, because large amount of time is unnecessarily spent to increase small amount of timing yield. The correlation that stems from clock network, when ignored, turns out to be one of the reasons of under-estimation in clocked sequential circuit. Three sources of topological correlation are identified; the key problem is to determine the correlations we can ignore without sac ...
As a novel optimization technique, chaos has gained much attention and some applications during the past decade. For a given energy or cost function, by following chaotic ergodic orbits, a chaotic dynamic system may eventually reach the global optimum or its good approximation with high probability. To enhance the performance of the local search method (LS), which is based on the generalized reduced gradient algorithm, hybrid local search method is proposed by incorporating chaos. Thus, LS and c ...
To characterize neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in extreme preterm deliveries (between 23 and 27 weeks’ gestation) with and without PPROM, and to evaluate the association between PPROM and chorioamnionitis. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on preterm singleton pregnancies delivered between 23 and 27 weeks’ gestation from 1988 to 2007. Immediate neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in pregnancies complicated by PPROM were compared to pregnancies with intact memb ...
This study attempts to estimate spatial soil moisture in South Korea (99,000 km2) from January 2013 to December 2015 using a multiple linear regression (MLR) model and the Terra moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and normalized distribution vegetation index (NDVI) data. The MODIS NDVI was used to reflect vegetation variations. Observed precipitation was measured using the automatic weather stations (AWSs) of the Korea Meteorological Administratio ...
In many large-scale machine learning applications, data are accumulated with time, and thus, an appropriate model should be able to update in an online paradigm. Moreover, as the whole data volume is unknown when constructing the model, it is desired to scan each data item only once with a storage independent with the data volume. It is also noteworthy that the distribution underlying may change during the data accumulation procedure. To handle such tasks, in this paper we propose DFOP, a distri ...
This thesis work deals with the volume changes during the solidification of cast irons and peritectic steels. The volume changes in casting metals are related to the expansion and/or contraction of the molten metal during solidification. Often, different types of shrinkage, namely macroand micro-shrinkage, affect the casting quality. In addition to that, exposure of the metal casting to higher contraction or expansion during the solidification might also be related to internal strain development ...
There is no doubt that the development of diagnostic criteria has contributed greatly to epidemiological research in prion diseases, and Heath and colleagues emphasize this in surveillance studies of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). We caution, however, against a more broad application in clinical practice, particularly in governing decisions about clinical diagnosis, communication with patients/caregivers, and access to experimental therapies. The physician looking after a young patien ...
We consider the problem of on-line call admission and routing on trees and meshes. Previous work gave randomized on-line algorithms for these problems, and proved that they have optimal competitive ratios. However, these algorithms can obtain very low profit with high probability. We investigate the question of devising for these problems on-line competitive algorithms that also guarantee a “good” solution with “good” probability. We give a new family of randomized algorithms with optima ...
Probability claims are ubiquitous in clinical medicine, yet exactly how clinical events relate to interpretations of probability has been not been well explored. This brief essay examines the major interpretations of probability and how these interpretations may account for the probabilistic nature of clinical events. It is argued that there are significant problems with the unquestioned application of interpretation of probability to clinical events. The essay concludes by suggesting other aven ...
A theory of evidential probability is developed from two assumptions: (1) the evidential probability of a proposition is its probability conditional on the total evidence; (2) one's total evidence is one's total knowledge. Evidential probability is distinguished from both subjective and objective probability. Loss as well as gain of evidence is permitted. Evidential probability is embedded within epistemic logic by means of possible worlds semantics for modal logic; this allows a natural theory ...
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Probabilistic planning is an extension of nondeterministic planning with exact information on the probabilities of nondeterministic events. Exact probabilities are important because it is not just important to get things done, but to get them done efficiently, and for goals for which there is no guarantee that they are reached, it is important to reach them as likely as possible. The introduction of probabilities complicates planning, both conceptually and computationally. Whereas in the non-pro ...
In this thesis we investigate the effects of the physical constraints such as antenna aperture size, antenna geometry and non-isotropic scattering distribution parameters (angle of arrival/departure and angular spread) on the performance of coherent and non-coherent space-time coded wireless communication systems. First, we derive analytical expressions for the exact pairwise error probability (PEP) and PEP upper-bound of coherent and non-coherent space-time coded systems operating over spatiall ...
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationship between access to care and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Mississippi by administering a statewide survey. A random probability sample of PLWHA was derived from the Mississippi State Department of Health's communicable disease tracking system. Interviews were conducted with 220 PLWHA to collect data on access to care, demographic and social characteristics, and HRQOL. ...
The sampling of spectrally sparse high-bandwidth signals below the Nyquist rate is of importance in many applications. In order to keep the front-end analog-to-digital converter sampling rate low, there has been a lot of recent interest in the literature to develop efficient and practical architectures for low-rate sampling and recovery of spectrally sparse signals. Our main contribution is a simple, implementation-friendly front-end sampling-architecture and a computationally efficient back-end ...
Activation of the vertebrate locomotor network is mediated via glutamatergic synaptic drive, normally initiated by the brainstem. Previous investigations have studied the role of glutamate receptors, especially NMDA receptors, in generating and regulating locomotor pattern generation. Few studies, however, have focused on the role of AMPA receptors in shaping network activity, especially with regard to their rapid desensitization. It is important to determine if AMPA receptor desensitization pla ...
The probability that protected areas will deliver their potential for maintaining or enhancing biodiversity is likely to be maximised if they are appropriately and effectively managed. As a result, governments and conservation agencies are devoting much attention to the management of protected areas. In the U.K., the demand for performance accountability has resulted in Public Service Agreements (PSA) that set out targets for government departments to deliver results in return for investments be ...
Molecular data have converged on a consensus about the genus-level phylogeny of extant platyrrhine monkeys, but for most extinct taxa and certainly for those older than the Pleistocene we must rely upon morphological evidence from fossils. This raises the question as to how well anatomical data mirror molecular phylogenies and how best to deal with discrepancies between the molecular and morphological data as we seek to extend our phylogenies to the placement of fossil taxa. Here I present parsi ...
This study compared the effects of different bedding depths on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of the bedding material used to raise pigs during growing and finishing. The experiment was conducted in two pens housing 5 pigs from 60 to 145 days of age, with rice husk beddings 0.50 or 0.25 m deep. Four lots of pigs (replicates) were raised over time in each bedding depth: each bedding was used by two consecutive lots. Bedding samples were collected quarterly to determine the most ...
In Western Europe, recreational amenity is presented as an important cultural ecosystem service that, along with other values, helps justify policies to conserve biodiversity. However, whether recreational use by the public is enhanced at protected areas designated for nature conservation is unknown. This is the first study to model outdoor recreation at a national scale, examining habitat preferences with statutory designation (Site of Special Scientific Interest) as an indicator of nature cons ...
The present paper investigates four relatively independent issues each in one section which complete our knowledge regarding the computational aspects of popular Hop eld nets In Section the computational equivalence of convergent asymmetric and Hop eld nets is proved with respect to the network size In Section the convergence time of Hop eld nets is analyzed in terms of bit representations In Section a polynomial time approximate algorithm for the minimum energy problem is shown In Section the T ...
The production of charged particles has been measured in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) with the ZEUS detector. The evolution of the moments of the scaled momenta distributions in Q 2 and x has been investigated in the current fragmentation region of the Breit frame. The results in the current region are compared to e + e − data and QCD analytical calculations. The results are consistent with the universality of single-particle spectra in DIS and e + e − annihilation at high Q 2. The result ...
The DØ experiment collected ≈ 15 pb −1 of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider using p¯ p collisions at √ s = 1.8 TeV. Results from analyses of events with W and Z bosons are presented for the run 1B data samples. From W → eν, µν and Z → ee, µµ decays, the W and Z production cross sections and the W width are determined. Events with W → τ ν decays are used to determine the ratio of the electroweak gauge coupling constants as a measure of lepton universality. Using W → eν and Z ...
To guarantee a high switching speed, routing in vertically stacked optical banyan (VSOB) networks needs special attention so that connections are established as fast as possible. Previously proposed Pruned Vertically Stacked Optical banyan (P-VSOB) networks used Plane Fixed Routing (PFR) algorithm, and has O(log<sub>2</sub>N) time complexity. Blocking probability has also been analyzed for these kinds of networks having link failures. This paper deals with the blocking behavior of EP ...
OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution pattern, species diversity and community structure of fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake, and the relationship between fleas and their hosts. METHODS Different geographical areas surrounding the Erhai Lake in Yunnan were selected as investigated spots. Small mammals were captured with baited cages. The cage-traps were examined and re-baited each morning. All fleas on the hosts were collected and identified. The richness (S), e ...
An alpine-type peridotite of the harzburgite subtype, about 47 km in area, crops out in the vicinity of Mount Sorenson in the Eagle and Charley River quadrangles of east-central Alaska. The peridotite consists mainly of harzburgite, some dunite, and minor clinopyroxenite. All of the peridotite has been serpentinized to some extent, most extensively in the eastern part. Lizardite is the dominant serpentine mineral. Large tectonic inclusions of diabase have been altered, probably by metasomatism d ...
The peripheral hemodynamics of 20 patients were studied 24 hours before and 24 hours following completion of Seldinger transfemoral cardiac catheterization. All patients were catheterized in the right femoral artery and vein, while in 13 an arterial needle was placed in the left femoral artery. In the catheterized leg, mean calf blood flow and venous capacitance fell while mean calf vascular resistance was increased. The placement of an indwelling arterial needle caused mean calf blood flow to f ...
Microbial-induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a relatively green and sustainable soil improvement technique. It utilizes biochemical process that exists naturally in soil to improve engineering properties of soils. The calcite precipitation process is uplifted by the mean of injecting higher concentration of urease positive bacteria and reagents into the soil. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the factors affecting the MICP in soil. Several factors were identified ...
Coexistence curves of square-well fluids with variable interaction width and of the restricted primitive model for ionic solutions have been investigated by means of grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations aided by histogram reweighting and multicanonical sampling techniques. It is demonstrated that this approach results in efficient data collection. The shape of the coexistence curve of the square-well fluid with short potential range is nearly cubic. In contrast, for a system with a longer pot ...
Posaconazole has been proven to be as effective as fluconazole in the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFI) in allogeneic haematopoietic SCT patients with GVHD. We assessed, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service, the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole vs fluconazole in preventing IFI. A decision-analytic model was developed to assess the average per patient treatment costs, IFIs avoided, life-years gained (LYG) and incremental cost per LYG for each prophylactic tre ...
In this paper we present a local channel correlation based zero-forcing (ZF) beamforming framework for the cell edge users. Without the instantaneous CSI (ICSI) assisting, we derive the exact expression of the averaged pairwise error probability (PEP) upper bounds at both of the receivers. According to the derived PEP bounds, an multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to get the elaborate power allocation and ZF beamforming design with the knowledge of local statistical channel state ...