phosphoric diester hydrolase (Total 75366 Papers Found)

1. The non-hydrolysable cyclic AMP analogue, dibutyryl (Bu2)-cyclic AMP, inhibited the stimulated release of histamine from both basophils and human lung mast cells (HLMC) in a dose-dependent manner. The concentrations required to inhibit histamine release by 50% (IC50) were 0.8 and 0.7 mM in basophils and HLMC, respectively. The cyclic GMP analogue, Bu2-cyclic GMP, was ineffective as an inhibitor of histamine release in basophils and HLMC. 2. The non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors ...
The molecular mechanism of the synergistic platelet inhibition by activators of adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase in human platelets was investigated. The adenylate cyclase activators iloprost and prostaglandin E1 and the guanylate cyclase activator 3-morpholino-syndnonimine (SIN-1) dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-induced aggregation of washed human platelets. Furthermore, SIN-1 at a concentration inhibiting platelet aggregation by only 10% shifted the IC50 values of iloprost and prost ...
Reversible protein phosphorylation is an important and versatile mechanism by which cells transduce external signals into biological responses. Cellular levels of protein phosphorylation are determined by the balanced actions of both protein kinases and protein phosphatases (PPases). Compared with protein kinases, however, serine/threonine PPases have received less attention. In the present study, the effects of certain insulin secretagogues and intracellular second messengers, known to stimulat ...
The biochemical characteristics of cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase were studied in homogenates of male albino rat skin using preparations which were predominantly epidermal. Enzymatic activity was detected in both the particulate and soluble fractions of these skin homogenates. Two kinetically distinct phosphodiesterase (PDE) activities were detected in the soluble fraction (100,000 times g supernatant). This 100,000 times g supernatant contains at least two distinct protein bands that ...
1,4-Bis(3-oxo-2,3-dihydropyridazin-6-yl)benzene and a series of related bis(azinone) compounds were synthesized. These novel compounds were evaluated for inhibition of the low Km, cAMP-selective, cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase (PDE III) derived from cat heart and hemodynamic activity in the ganglion- and beta-blocked anesthetized cat. The most potent PDE III inhibitor of the series was 6-[4-(5-methyl-3-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-6-yl)-phenyl]p yridazin- 3(2H)-one (IC50 = 0.07 microM), whi ...
The great diversity of pharmacological effects of xanthines may well reflect different cellular mechanisms of action. Major attention is presently devoted to adenosine receptor antagonism that, in contrast to phosphodiesterase inhibition, is clearly produced by therapeutic concentrations of theophylline. The ubiquitous adenosine effects together with the universal and potent blocking action of methylxanthines have led investigators to believe that most pharmacological actions including antiasthm ...
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a central second messenger controlling a plethora of vital functions. Studies of cAMP dynamics in living cells have revealed markedly inhomogeneous concentrations of the second messenger in different compartments. Moreover, cAMP effectors such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cAMP-activated GTP-exchange factors (Epacs) are tethered to specific cellular sites. Both the tailoring of cAMP concentrations, and the activities of cAMP-dependent signall ...
the various guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins that have been fully characterized to date. It has been a matter of some contention as to whether insulin can exert an inhibitory effect upon adenylate cyclase activity. However, based upon our observations on the plasma-membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, it is apparent that such effects should only be observed at relatively high, but nevertheless physiological, GTP concentrations. Under such conditions we (Heyworth & Houslay, 19836) have in ...
In this work a step forward in investigating the use of prescription drugs, namely erectile dysfunction products, at European level was taken by applying the wastewater-based epidemiology approach. 24-h composite samples of untreated wastewater were collected at the entrance of eight wastewater treatment plants serving the catchment within the cities of Bristol, Brussels, Castellón, Copenhagen, Milan, Oslo, Utrecht and Zurich. A validated analytical procedure with direct injection of filtered a ...
A comparison is presented of the levels of cyclic adenosine 3 :5 -monophosphate, cyclic guanosine 3 :5 -monophosphate (cyclic GMP), adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase, cyclic adenosine 3 :5 -monophosphate phosphodiesterase, and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase in 9,10dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-induced mammary tumors of rats and in mammary glands from virgin and midpregnant rats. Many changes were observed, but the differ ences are difficult to interpret since the changes were not consistent when ...
Walker carcinoma cell lines sensitive or resistant to bifunctional alkylating agents have been found to contain multiple forms of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (3':5'-cyclic AMP 5'-nucleotidohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.17). These activities have been resolved using Sepharose 6B gel filtration and their apparent molecular weights have been estimated. The enzyme appears to occur in four active forms of apparent mol. wts of greater than 1 000 000, 430 000, 350 000 and 225 000, when assayed at low substrate ...
The formation of multiprotein complexes is a repeated theme in biology ranging from the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cAMP signaling pathways to the formation of postsynaptic density complexes or tight junctions. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are well known for their ability to scaffold protein kinase A and components upstream and downstream of cAMP production, including G protein-coupled receptors, cAMP-dependent Rap-exchange factors, and phosphodiesterases. ...
The type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) is the predominant PDE isozyme in various leukocytes and plays a key role in the regulation of inflammatory cell activation. There are four PDE4 subtypes (A, B, C, and D), and within each subtype, there are multiple variants. Very recently, we found in monocytes that PDE4B gene expression is selectively induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and that the induction is inhibited by interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-4. In this study, we show that the PDE4B gene is constitu ...
(1) Cyclic GMP (cGMP) has been shown to be an important modulator of cardiac contractile function. A major component of cGMP regulation of contractility is cGMP-mediated inhibition of the cardiac calcium current (I(Ca)). An under-appreciated aspect of cyclic nucleotide signalling is hydrolysis of the cyclic nucleotide (i.e., breakdown by phosphodiesterases (PDEs)). The role of cGMP hydrolysis in regulating I(Ca) has not been studied. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate if inhibitio ...
UNLABELLED Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the first highly pathogenic human coronavirus to emerge since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002. Like many coronaviruses, MERS-CoV carries genes that encode multiple accessory proteins that are not required for replication of the genome but are likely involved in pathogenesis. Evasion of host innate immunity through interferon (IFN) antagonism is a critical component of viral pathogenesis. The IF ...
INTRODUCTION In male sexual dysfunction (MSD), the presence of sexual comorbidities is relatively frequent. However, what is still a matter of controversy is what the first-line therapy in these patients should be. METHODS Three scientists and the editor of the Controversies section, all experts in the medical treatment of MSD, present different perspectives on the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5), testosterone and dapoxetine in erectile dysfunction (ED), hypogonadism, and pre ...
Much attention has recently been paid to the study of the role of cyclic nucleotides in the course of repair processes, and also to substances modulating their activity in rive. Imidazole is known to be a component of the biologically active substance carnosine, which has a stimulating action on wound healing. Under certain conditions imidazole in vivo can double 3',5'-A~ phosphodiesterase activity and so facilitate hydrolysis of cyclic A~, the products of which stimulate proliferation and biosy ...
Chemoprevention is an emerging strategy to prevent cancer. Among the chemopreventive agents, resveratrol is under intensive investigation. The recent discovery of resveratrol’s inhibition of phosphodiesterases has reinforced the interest of studying its effect on cancer cell metabolism, to develop new therapies. Preclinical evidence suggests that resveratrol could prevent and sensitize a wide range of tumors. A number of clinical trials are currently ongoing. The following review describes the ...
INTRODUCTION Men may choose to bypass the healthcare system to obtain a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i). AIM Evaluate the characteristics and purchasing patterns of men obtaining a PDE5i without prior healthcare professional (HCP) interaction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Prior HCP interaction, defined as having a prescription for any PDE5i, having a PDE5i sample from a physician, or buying the PDE5i in a retail pharmacy; and erectile dysfunction (ED, the Massachusetts Male Aging Study s ...
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced a dose-dependent increase in tone of the circular muscles of guinea pig ileum in vitro. These actions of PGE2 were deleted in the cold-stored preparations and blocked by tetrodotoxin. Atropine reduced the effects of PGE2 and physostigmine potentiated the PGE2-induced contractions. The release of acetylcholine (ACh) by PGE2 was responsible for initiating this contraction. The effect of PGE2 was compared with that of an electrical stimulation which also initiated a ...
The naphthalene sulfonamide calmodulin antagonists, /V-(6-aminohexyl)-S-chloro-l-naphthalenesulfonamide and jV-(4-aminobutyl)-5chloro-2-naphthalenesulfonamide, both induce limited myeloid differen tiation of the human promyelocytic cell line, HL-60. In addition, these inhibitors augment the differentiation observed when HL-60 cells are induced with retinole acid, dimethyl sulfoxide, or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The dose-response curve for HL-60 differentiation was consistent with ...
The use of synthetic phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: sildenafil citrate (Viagra(®)), tadalafil (Cialis(®)) and vardenafil hydrochloride (Levitra(®)) has increased dramatically over the past 2 years. These substances are prescription drugs and must be used under medical supervision. However, they can easily be obtained over the internet from illegal sites, being a potential for a threat to public health. The development of an electrospray ...
Human platelets contain the cyclic nucleotide-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) 2, 3 and 5. The cGMP-PDE5 inhibitors Sildenafil and Zaprinast have been demonstrated to potentiate the anti-platelet aggregatory effect of NO donors like sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in vitro but the mechanisms of Sildenafil's action on the secretory function of human platelets have not been analysed in detail. In the present paper, we show (1) that both compounds potentiate the SNP-induced increase in cGMP in huma ...
The presence of a cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase in mutant Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae, deficient in cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase is demonstrated. This enzyme shows a high affinity for cGMP and is not affected by cAMP at concentrations of up to 0.3 mM. It is activated by Mg2+ and Mn2+, and displays no apparent heterogeneity. Biochemical analysis of wild-type amoebae revealed the presence of a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase sha ...
Mutants which are defective in catabolite repression control (CRC) of multiple independently regulated catabolic pathways have been previously described. The mutations were mapped at 11 min on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome and designated crc. This report describes the cloning of a gene which restores normal CRC to these Crc- mutants in trans. The gene expressing this CRC activity was subcloned on a 2-kb piece of DNA. When this 2-kb fragment was placed in a plasmid behind a phage T7 promo ...
INTRODUCTION Phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibition is a well-known anti-inflammatory mechanism. However, the clinical use of PDE4 inhibitors has been compromised by the occurrence of mechanism-associated adverse reactions, which often limit the maximum tolerated dose. To minimize systemic exposure, a topically active PDE4 inhibitor with low transdermal bioavailability could be clinically useful. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel topical PDE4 inhibitor, E6005, ...
BACKGROUND Familial testicular germ cell tumors (FTGCTs) are hypothesized to result from the combined interaction of multiple low-penetrance genes. We reported inactivating germline mutations of the cAMP-binding phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) as modifiers of FTGCT risk. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the KITLG gene, the ligand for the cKIT tyrosine kinase receptor, as strong modifiers of susceptibility to both familial and sporadic testi ...
A series of 6-benzoxazinylpyridazin-3-ones was prepared and evaluated for inhibition of cardiac phosphodiesterase (PDE) fraction III in vitro and for positive inotropic activity in vivo. 6-[3,4-Dihydro-3-oxo-1,4(2H)-benzoxazin-7-yl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5 - methylpyridazin-3-one (bemoradan) was found to be an extremely potent and selective inhibitor of canine PDE fraction III and a long-acting, potent, orally active inotropic vasodilator agent in various canine models. Additional benzoxazin-6-yl a ...
1. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques were applied to sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs), the majority of which contain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS), in transverse thoracolumbar spinal cord slices from 8- to 12-day-old rats, and the role of nitric oxide (NO) in modulating the inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) evoked by focal stimulation was examined. 2. Superfusing the slices with the NO precursor L-arginine (L-Arg, 300 microM) and the NO donor sodium nitroprusside ( ...
In contrast to fully grown oocytes, growing mouse oocytes are not capable of undergoing germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) when released from the follicle unless they are first cultured in somatic-cell-conditioned medium. The first objective of this study was to assess the mechanisms by which oocytes in vitro acquire the ability to resume meiosis in conditioned medium. Whereas most of the denuded oocytes that were initially incompetent of undergoing GVD underwent GVB within 4 days of culture in fi ...
BACKGROUND Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, has endothelium protective and angiogenic effects. OBJECTIVES To test if sildenafil improves tissue perfusion and neovascularization and downregulates proinflammatory molecules following limb ischemia. METHODS 30 ApoE-/- male mice, bred with cholesterol rich diet for 4 weeks, were anesthetized and underwent unilateral hind-limb ischemia with ligation of the left femoral artery. Mice were randomized in 2 groups: sildenafil (1 ...
Recent studies suggest that intracellular signaling pathways involving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) may be related to fear processing and long-term memory formation. The type IV phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram prevents breakdown of cAMP, enhances long-term memory and may reduce anxiety. In the present study we investigated the role of rolipram in the expression (0, 0.2, or 1 mg/kg), acquisition (0, 0.03, 0.2 or 1 mg/kg), and extinction (0, 0.03, 0.2, 1 mg/kg) of fear using a ...
BACKGROUND The cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) pathway plays a central role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Cyclic AMP has been identified as a bifunctional regulator of apoptosis. The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) regulates apoptosis by directly inhibiting distinct caspases. METHODS Expression levels of rat IAP (RIAP)-1 were investigated by RNase protection assay in rat mesangial cells after stimulation with diverse agents that modul ...
Effects of acetylcholine (ACh) on L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) were examined in isolated atrioventricular (AV) node cells exhibiting spontaneous contractions and pacemaker current (If). ACh at a saturating concentration of 10 microM reduced basal ICa by 48 +/- 6%. The ACh effect was abolished by dialysis with 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcAMP), an adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, or guanosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate). Dialysis with ...
The trypanocidal drug suramin is known to concentrate in lysosomes and to depress the activity of different lysosomal enzymes. We have previously shown that suramin can inhibit the activity of the islet lysosomal enzyme acid amyloglucosidase, a glycogenolytic glucose-producing hydrolase, which seems to be involved in certain insulin-secretory processes. In the present investigation we studied the pH dependency and dose-response effects of suramin on islet lysosomal enzyme activities as well as t ...
Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I generates high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by removing cellular cholesterol and phospholipid on the interaction with cells as a main source of plasma HDL. The reaction is induced by dibutylyl cyclic (dbc) adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in RAW 264, mouse macrophage cell line cells, and we investigated its pharmacologic modulation using this cell model. Release of cellular cholesterol and choline phospholipid by apoA-I was increased 9.9 and 4.2 times, respectively, by pretrea ...
Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the major effector molecule for nitric oxide (NO) and as such an interesting therapeutic target for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. To assess the functional importance of the sGCα1β1 isoform in corpus cavernosum (CC) relaxation, CC from male sGCα1−/− and wild-type mice were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension recording. The relaxation to endogenous NO (from acetylcholine, bradykinin and electrical field stimulation) was nearly abolished in ...
In the past ten years, several chromosomal loci have been identified by genome-wide association studies to influence the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its risk factors. The GUCY1A3 gene encoding the α1 subunit of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) resides at one of these loci and has been strongly associated with blood pressure and CAD risk. More recently, further genes in the pathway encoding the endothelial nitric oxide synthase, the phosphodiesterases 3A and 5A, and the inositol ...
Administration to rats of the selective beta-2 adrenoceptor agonist (+/-)-clenbuterol (CLEN) (0.3 mg.kg-1 s.c., twice daily for 14 days) decreased the relaxant responses to the beta adrenoceptor agonist (-)-isoproterenol (IS) and to CLEN in KCl-contracted aortic rings. The treatment did not modify the vasodilation induced by forskolin (a direct activator of the catalytic subunit of the adenylate cyclase), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor), adenosine or acetylcholine. IS ...
We describe here a novel sensor for cGMP based on the GAF domain of the cGMP-binding, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The wild type GAFa domain, capable of binding cGMP with high affinity, and a mutant (GAFa F163A) unable to bind cGMP were cloned as fusions between GFP and Rluc for BRET (2) assays. BRET (2) ratios of the wild type GAFa fusion protein, but not GAFa F163A, increased in the presence of cGMP but not cAMP. Higher basal ...
The specific type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram is a potent suppressor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) synthesis. We examined the efficacy of rolipram for the prevention and treatment of experimental colitis. To induce colitis, BALB/c mice received 5% dextran sulfate sodium in their drinking water continuously for up to 11 days. Colitis was quantified by a clinical activity score assessing weight loss, stool consistency, and rectal bleeding (range from 0 to 4); by colon length; by ...
Sulindac sulfone (exisulind), although a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug derivative, induces apoptosis in tumor cells by a mechanism that does not involve cyclooxygenase inhibition. SW480 colon tumor cells contain guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms of the PDE5 and PDE2 gene families that are inhibited by exisulind and new synthetic analogues. The analogues maintain rank order of potency for PDE inhibition, apoptosis induction, and growth inhibition. A novel ...
Bacillus subtilis C-756, a producer of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase inhibitor, was cultured in media adjusted to various water activity (aw) levels by addition of three different solutes, sodium chloride, ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 1540 (PEG). B. subtilis C-756 can grow, however weakly, at aw levels of 0.94 and 0.93. The presence of all three solutes in the medium inhibited growth, cell mass as well as inhibitor production. PEG was found to be mo ...
We have previously shown that a phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, vardenafil, possesses bladder protective effects in bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) rats by preserving contractile force. In this study, we examined the effects of vardenafil to obtain clues for further research elucidating the mechanism of action of vardenafil on rat normal bladder. In all, twenty 12-week-old female Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two equal groups: group 1, water-treated rats; and group 2, vardenaf ...
Fibrotic alterations are part of the airway re-modelling processes observed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There is increasing evidence that in addition to acute bronchodilatory effects, classical anti-obstructive drugs such as muscarinic antagonists and β-adrenoceptor agonists may also modulate long-term re-modelling processes. The present review aims to summarise muscarinic and β-adrenergic effects on pulmonary fibroblasts. Recent experimental evidence demonstrated musc ...
The nucleotide sequences of the glpQ and ugpQ genes of Escherichia coli, which both encode glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterases, were determined. The glpQ gene encodes a periplasmic enzyme of 333 amino acids, produced initially with a 25 residue long signal sequence, while ugpQ codes for a cytoplasmic protein of 247 amino acids. Despite differences in size and cellular location, significant similarity in the primary structures of the two enzymes was found suggesting a common evolutionary ...
Autosomal-dominant striatal degeneration (ADSD) is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder affecting the striatal part of the basal ganglia. ADSD is characterized by bradykinesia, dysarthria, and muscle rigidity. These symptoms resemble idiopathic Parkinson disease, but tremor is not present. Using genetic linkage analysis, we have mapped the causative genetic defect to a 3.25 megabase candidate region on chromosome 5q13.3-q14.1. A maximum LOD score of 4.1 (Theta = 0) was obtained at marker D5S1 ...
We examined renal sodium handling in rats with Hymann nephritis (HEN), an immunologically mediated model of nephrotic syndrome. Rats were studied 9-14 days following i.p. injection of anti-Fx1A antiserum. We previously demonstrated that HEN had a blunted volume expansion natriuresis (2% body weight isotonic saline infused over 5 min), excreting sodium at only half the rate of normal controls (CTL) despite similar increase in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration. Urinary excretio ...